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thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers

Posted by Rey 
Position: School of Computing Forums > 2009 > INF320E
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avatar thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 12:09PM
This is what I have so far, It may help with everyone's studying. You can help full in the blanks by posting, if you want. I'll try add some of the ones I've missed later. (I don't take responsibility for the accuracy of this info, if you feel anything is wrong feel free to post a correction, and I'll try add it later)

I see the "exam prep" thread and everyone worried about were to start. This is an opportunity to find that place. I challenge you to post a correction or addition.

Chapter 1
• Explain the difference between good and poor interaction design.
Design Principles
*Visibility
*Feedback
*Constraints
*Consistency
*Affordance

• Describe what interaction design is and how it relates to human-computer interaction and other
fields

Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact.
It is concerned with how a product will be used and not with how it will be built.
Everyone one is involved with interaction design.

• Explain what usability is
Usability Goals
*Effectiveness
*Efficiency
*Safety
*Utility
*Learnability
*Memorabiltiy

Usability experience – fun/annoying, sexy/boring


• Describe what is involved in the process of interaction design
Four basic Activities:
1.Identifying needs and establishing requirements
2.Developing alternatives designs
3.Building interactive versions
4.Evaluation

• Outline the different forms of guidance used in interaction design. (Thanks Pruthven [www.doc.ic.ac.uk] )
Design principles
Usability principles (Listed in 1st Ed, chapter 1)


• Evaluate an interactive product and explain what is good and bad about it in terms of the goals and
principles of interaction design



Chapter 2
• Explain what is meant by the problem space
Framework for discovering the problem space:
*Are there problems with an existing product or user experience? If so what are they?
*Why do you think there are problems?
*How do you think your proposed design idea might overcome these?
*If new product, how do you think your proposed ideas support, change or extend current ways of doing things?

• Explain how to conceptualize interaction


• Describe what a conceptual model is and explain the different kinds of conceptual models
Conceptual models:

A conceptual model is a high-level description of how a system is organised and operates
*The major metaphors and analogies
*The concepts – Task domain objects they create and manipulate
*The relationships betweens concepts
*The mappings

• Discuss the pros and cons of using interface metaphors as conceptual models
Pros:
* Makes learning new systems easier
* Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model
* Can be innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users
*Source of inspiration
*Used to explain what you are trying to do in terms familiar to themselves
*A way of conceptualizing a particular interaction style
*Part of the conceptual model instantiated at the interface
*A way of describing computers – internet super highway
*Names for describing specific operations
*Part of the training material aimed at helping learning
Cons :
*Breaks the rules – Trash can
*Too constricting
*Conflicts with design principles
*Not being able to understand the system functionality beyond the metaphor -
*Overly literal translation of existing bad designs - Calculator
*Limits the designers imagination in creating new models

(Thanks Pruthven)
And I think these are also from the 1st Ed (not related to Ch2 in the 2nd Ed):
• Debate the pros and cons of using realism versus abstraction at the interface (ch6.3 p247)
• Outline the relationship between conceptual design and physical design (ch11.4 p551)

Chapter 4
• Explain what is meant by communication and collaboration

• Describe the main kinds of social mechanisms that are used by people to communicate and
collaborate


• Outline the range of collaborative systems that have been developed to support this kind of social
behaviour


• Consider how field studies and socially based theories can inform the design of collaborative
systems



Chapter 5
• Explain what expressive interfaces are and the affects they can have on people
Expressive interfaces use objects like emoticons, sounds, icons and virtual agents to convey emotional states and/or elicit certain kinds of emotional responses in users
They also use:
*Dynamic icons
*Animations
*Spoken messages
*Various Sonifications

• Outline the nature of user frustration and how to reduce it
Common frustrations:
*Waiting
*Upgrading
*Appearance
Often frustrated by
*Overloaded text and graphics
*Flashing animations
*Over used sound
*Featuritis
*Childish designs
*Poorly laid out keyboards, pads, control panels and other input devices
Reduce frustrations by:
*Implementing correct design guidelines
*Make good error messages
*Provide informative feed back
*Allow users to investigate issue clearly


• Debate the pros and cons of applying anthropomorphism in interaction design
Pros:
*Create acceptance and joy in objects, especially children
Cons:
*Create inferiority complexes
*Create a false sense of belief
*Can lead people to feel dissoluteness

Chapter 6
• Describe the notion of a paradigm
A paradigm refers to a particular approach that has been adopted by the community of researchers and designers for carrying out their work, in terms of shared assumptions, concepts, values and practices.

• Recognize the many different kinds of interfaces
Broken down into three decades loosely ordered I terms of when they where developed
1980 interfaces:
*Command (CLI)
*WIMP/GUI (Windows, icons,Menus and pointers)
1990 interfaces:
*Advanced graphical (multimedia, virtual reality, information visualization)
*Web
*Speech (voice)
*Pen, gesture, and touch
*Appliance (Machines)
2000 interfaces:
*Mobile
*Multi-modal – Detect external inputs (eye gaze, voice)
*Shareable – Smartboards, Wall displays
*Tangible
*Augmented and mixed reality
*Wearable
*Robotic

• Know the main design and research issues for each of the different interfaces


• Know how to consider which interface is best for a given application or activity


Chapter 7
• Plan and run a successful data gathering program
Key issues:
*Setting goals
*Relationship with participants
*Triangulation
*Pilot studies
*Date recording:
Notes, audio recording, photographs, and video recordings

Unstructured interviews
Structured interviews
Semi-structured interviews
Focus groups


• Plan and run an interview
Developing interview questions
Running the interview:
*Introduction
*Warm-up
*Main session
*Cool-off period
*Closing session

• Design a simple questionnaire
Negative questions should be avoided
Designing the questionnaire's structure
*Question ordering
*Require different versions?
*Provide clear instructions
*Good use of white space
response format
*Check boxes and ranges
*Rating scale
Administering questionnaires
*Online questionnaires
*Web based
*Email

• Plan and execute an observation
Direct observation in the field
Direct observation in controlled environments
Indirect observation


Chapter 9
• Explain why it is important to involve users in system development

• Explain what a user-centred design process is
Early focus on users and tasks
Users tasks and goals are the driving force behind the development
Users' behaviour and context of use are studied and the system is designed to support them
Users' characteristics are captured and designed for
Users are consulted throughout development from earliest phase to the latest and their input is seriously taken into account
All design decisions are taken within the context of the users, their work and their environment
Empirical measurement
Iterative design

• Describe what doing interaction design involves
1.Identifying needs and establishing requirements for the user experience
2.Developing designs that meet those requirements
3.Building interactive versions of the designs
4.Evaluating what is being built throughout the process and the user experience it offers

• Ask and provide answers to some important questions about the interaction design process
Who are the users? -- Everyone
What do we mean by needs?
How do you generate alternative designs? -- Cross training, pinching
How do you choose among alternatives?

• Describe various life cycle models from software engineering and HCI and discuss how they relate
to the process of interaction design


• Present a life cycle model of interaction design

Chapter 10
• Describe different kinds of requirements
Functional requirements – Able to perform certain actions
Data requirements – Capture, process, output, store
Environmental requirements or context of use
User characteristics – Novice, Guru, child, adult, disabled
Userbility and user experience goals

• Enable you to identify examples of different kinds of requirements from a simple description

• Explain how different data gathering techniques (those introduced in Chapter 7 and others) may be
used during the requirements activity

Interviews
Questionnaires
observation – Direct / indirect
Focus groups
Study documentation
Researching similar projects

• Enable you to develop a ‘scenario,’ a ‘use case,’ and an ‘essential use case’ from a simple
description

Scenario – informal narrative description (person explaining what happens in their department)
Use case – One path through a process, with alternatives
Create use case diagrams
Essential use case – back and forth narrative describing general activity of actors I.e. “identify self” not “enter password”.

• Enable you to perform hierarchical task analysis on a simple description

Chapter 11
• Describe prototyping and different types of prototyping activities
Prototyping is an aid in discussing ideas, answering questions and support the choosing of different designs
Evolutionary and throwaway prototypes. Involves compromise. Either Horizontal (lots of functions, but little details) or vertical (lots of details for a small set of functions)

• Enable you to produce simple prototypes from the models developed during the requirements
activity

Low fidelity:
*Storyboarding
*Sketching
*Index cards
*Wizard of Oz
High fidelity:
*Visual Basic
*Flash

• Enable you to produce a conceptual model for a product and justify your choices
Conceptual model design is concerned with transforming needs and requirements into a conceptual model. Taking into account the interaction of information, functional and user requirements.

• Explain the use of scenarios and prototypes in design
Scenarios:
*As a basis for the overall design
*For technical implementation
*As a means of cooperation within design teams
*As a means of cooperation across professional boundries

• Discuss the range of tool support available for interaction design


Chapter 12
• Explain what evaluation is, why evaluation is important and when to use different evaluation
techniques and approaches



• Discuss the three main evaluation approaches and evaluation methods
Usability testing:
*Later stages of design
*Measuring users performance on tasks
---Videos
---Logs
*User satisfaction questionnaires and interview
*Controlled by the evaluator

Field studies:
*Done in a natural setting
*Helps identify opportunities for new technology
*Establish the requirements for design
*Facilitate the introduction of technology
*Evaluate technology
*Recorded notes by audio or video
*Artifacts are also collected

Analytical evaluation:
*Two categories of evaluation methods
---Inspection
---Theoretically based models
*Cognitive walk through involves simulating a users problem solving process at each step in the human-computer dialog

Chapter 13
• Define what is meant by the concept of an evaluation paradigm
Any kind of evaluation is guided, either explicitly or implicitly by a set of beliefs that may also be underpinned by theory. These beliefs
and the practices associated with them are known as an evaluation paradigm. Evaluation paradigms are often related to a particular
discipline in that they strongly influence how people from the discipline think about evaluation. Each paradigm has particular methods and
techniques associated with it.

• Define and compare the following four evaluation paradigms: ‘quick and dirty’, usability testing,
field studies and predictive evaluation

"Quick and dirty"
*Is a common practice in which designers informally get feedback from users or consultants to confirm that their ideas are in line with users' needs and are linked. These evaluations can be done at any stage and emphasizes fast input rather than carefully documented findings. Called "quick and dirty" because it is meant to be done in a short space of time.
Usability testing
*Involves measuring typical users' performance on carefully prepared tasks that are typical of those for which the system was designed. Users' performance is generally measured in terms of number of errors and the time to complete the task. Users are watched and recorded on video while performing these tasks. Usability testing is strongly controlled by the evaluator.
Field studies
*Are done in natural settings with the aim of increasing understanding about what users do naturally and how technology impacts on them. It can be used to:
-Help identify opportunities for new technology;
-Determine requirements for design;
-Facilitate the introduction of technology;
-Evaluate technology.

• Define and compare the following five evaluation techniques: observing users, asking users their
opinions, asking experts their opinions, testing users’ performance and modelling users’ task
performance

*Observing users. Observation techniques help to identify needs leading to new types of products and help to evaluate prototypes.
Notes, audio, video and interaction logs can be used.
*Asking users their opinions. Interviews and questionnaires are the main techniques for doing this.
*Asking experts their opinions. Guided by heuristics, experts step through tasks, role-playing typical users and identifying problems.
*Testing users' performance. These tests are usually conducted in controlled settings and involve typical users performing typical, well-
defined tasks.
*Modelling users' task performance to predict the efficacy of the user interface. These techniques are successful for systems with limited
functionality such as telephone systems.

• Describe the DECIDE framework and its components
1.Determine the goals
*Who wants it and why?
*What are the high-level goals of the evaluation
*Clarify the users needs. Have they been met in an early design sketch?
*Help determine the scope.
2.Explore the questions
*Breakdown questions into specifics i.e. is the user interface poor? Why? What?
3.Choose the approach and methods
4.Identify the practical issues
*This can be approached by making a pilot study.
*Users
--Male/female
--Novice/expert
--Age
--Cultural diversity
*Facilities and equipment
--Who is holding the camera?
--Where is it and where is it aiming?
*Schedule and budget constraints
--How many users can we have?
--When can we perform the interview
*Expertise
--Does the team have the right experience?
5.Decide how to deal with the ethical issues
*Privacy should be protected.
--Have a consent form describing how, and what the data is being used for
--Data mustn't be linked directly with the participant
*Dignity
*Integrity
*Security of data
*Summary guidelines
--Tell participants the goals of the study and exactly what they should expect if they participate
--Be sure to explain the demographic, financial, health or other sensitive information that users disclose or is discovered from the tests is confidential
--Make sure participants know that they are free to stop the evaluation at any time if they feel uncomfortable
--Consider your relationship with the participants and descide whether it is appropriate to provide incentives such as food, book tokens, or financial repayment.
--Avoid including quotes or descriptions that inadvertently reveal a persons identity
--Ask users permission in advance to quote them, promise them anonymity, and offer to show them a copy of the report before it is distributed.

Chapter 14
• Explain how to do user testing
*Goals and questions
--Identify the range of usability problems
*Selection of participants
*Development of the tasks
*The test procedure
*Data collection
*Data analysis

• Discuss how and why a user test differs from an experiment

• Discuss the contribution of user testing to usability testing

• Discuss how to design a simple experiment

• Identify different experimental designs and compare them.

• Describe the GOMS model, the Keystroke level model and Fitts' law, and discuss when these
techniques are useful


• Explain how to do a simple keystroke level analysis

• Apply these techniques when appropriate



Chapter 15
• Describe the important concepts associated with inspection methods

• Show how heuristic evaluation can be adapted to evaluate different types of interactive products

• Explain what is involved in doing heuristic evaluation and various kinds of walkthrough

• Describe how to perform two types of predictive technique, GOMS and Fitts’ Law, and when to use
them


• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using analytical evaluation

----
"Flying is learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss." - Douglas Adams
"Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils ..." - Louis Hector Berlioz
I think animal testing is a terrible idea; they get all nervous and give the wrong answers.
Re: thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 01:27PM
Thanks for all your effort! I'll go through it and try and give some feedback as well smiling smiley

Where did you get the questions?
Re: thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 01:31PM
nm, missed that you said chapter objectives smiling smiley
avatar Re: thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 01:53PM
Thank you. Much appreciated. If I can get this done. I'll try make a mock exam from what I've got. I'm only studying this today and Monday. I have an exam Monday morning. So I'll do the best I can.

----
"Flying is learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss." - Douglas Adams
"Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils ..." - Louis Hector Berlioz
I think animal testing is a terrible idea; they get all nervous and give the wrong answers.
Re: thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 02:31PM
Looks like some of the unit outcomes are still based on the previous book
Some PDFs I stumbled on:
[www.doc.ic.ac.uk] <- looks like the 1st Edition of the book

Chapter 1

• Outline the different forms of guidance used in interaction design.

Design principles
Usability principles (Listed in 1st Ed, chapter 1)
Re: thumbs up smiley Chapter objectives + some answers
November 21, 2009 02:49PM
Chapter 2

Discuss the pros and cons of using interface metaphors as conceptual models.
I'd say the pros are:
* Makes learning new systems easier
* Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model
* Can be innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users


And I think these are also from the 1st Ed (not related to Ch2 in the 2nd Ed):

• Debate the pros and cons of using realism versus abstraction at the interface (ch6.3 p247)
• Outline the relationship between conceptual design and physical design (ch11.4 p551)
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